Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Nutrition, Physical Activity and Weight Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Nutrition, Physical Activity and Weight - Essay Example From this study it is clear that  evidence based messages to promote healthy nutrition in adolescents should target food groups, snacks, meals, fast food and beverages. Teenagers should ensure that their diet contains a variety of foods such as grains, meat, poultry, dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and nuts to accommodate their growth requirements of minerals, vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Daily 5 servings of fruits and vegetables are recommended.This paper highlights that energy dense-nutrient poor foods such as fried potato chips, biscuits and cakes lead to a lower intake of fruits and vegetables and are more likely to be associated with consumption of other energy dense-nutrient poor foods like colas. Energy drinks and soft drinks should be consumed in limited quantity because of their high caffeine and sugar content. Current research suggests that reducing consumption of sugar sweetened and carbonated drinks can help in obesity prevention. Instead, water in take should be increased. They should be taught to read the labels before consuming packaged and processed foods regarding calories, fat and sodium content of the product and choose accordingly and wisely. Also, difference in home cooked and processed food can be explained and reasons for ‘eating out’ analysed.  Adolescents should be explained about the benefits of staying physically active and how it can be achieved. Teenagers should be encouraged to take part in sports and other physical activities at school.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Types Of Anxiety Disorders

The Types Of Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is a general term for several disorders that cause nervousness, apprehension and worrying. These disorders affect how we feel and behave, and they can manifest physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating, which will cause a serious impact on daily life. (medicalnewstoday.com, 2010) It is different as fear, as we only feel fear when the stimulus is present, and it fades off if we avoid the stimulus. (James W. Kalat, 1992). On the other hand, anxiety is the result of how people perceive threats, which appears to be uncontrollable and unavoidable. In fact, anxiety may not always be a bad thing as they help us stay alert and focused; it spurs us to action and motivates us to solve problems. People often experience worry or fear when they confront something challenging such as examinations and interview, these mild anxiety are justified and considered as normal. It only becomes a disorder when it interferes with our ability to function and cope with everyday life (James W. Kalat, 1992). Anxiety disorder, are thus the results from excessive anxiety and worries, in which occurred in a prolonged period of time to be classified as a type of disorder. Research shows that almost 25 percent of the adult population experienced symptoms characteristic of the various anxiety disorders (Kessler etal., 1994). Because anxiety disorders are a group of related conditions rather than just a single disorder, they vary from person to person. Different individuals may experience different type of attacks and symptoms. Despite of the different forms in anxiety disorder, all anxiety disorders share one major symptom: persistent or severe worry or fear in situations in which most people would not feel threatened (Melinda Smith, 2008). This shows that to be categorized in the different types of anxiety disorder, it depends on which type of anxiety is experienced, the degree of anxiety experienced, and also the situation which stimulated the anxiety. There are several disorders which are categorized under anxiety disorder, the five major categorize are namely Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic disorder, phobias, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (Zimbardo Gerrig, 1996) Types of Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder This disorder is diagnosed when a person have the anxious and worry feeling in a prolonged period of time, at least six months, when he or she is not threatened by any specific danger. It usually focused on specific life circumstances (Zimbardo Gerrig, 1996). Several examples for life circumstances are such as keeping their job, simple household matters, well-being of loved ones etc. They do not have realistic reason to have such intense anxiety and it may persist and interfere their normal functioning in daily life for a prolonged period of time. Physical symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder may include sweating, flushing, pounding heart, diarrhea, clammy hands, headaches, muscle tension and muscle aches. Whereas the psychological symptoms are frequently includes persistent nervousness, fatigue, restlessness, irritability and insomnia (Rod Plotnik, 1993). This disorder leads to impaired functioning because the person is unable to control his excessive anxiety; hence the individual cannot attend sufficiently to his or her daily life obligations. It is further compounded by the physical symptoms associated with the disorder. For instance, when the individual has this disorder, he perhaps will have persistent insomnia, which leads to deprivation of sleep. This will then affect his function ability the next day as he is too tired or fatigue. Generalized Anxiety Disorder is commonly treated with psychotherapy or with medications. Many studies show that therapy is the most effective treatment for most people as it is side-effect free. One of the psychotherapy which is commonly used to treat Generalized Anxiety Disorder is the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). It analyses the distortions in the way the patient perceive the world and themselves (Robert Segal, 2008). As from the medication aspect, drugs which are frequently prescribed are tranquilizers, such as Valium and Librium (Slazman, 1991). In moderate dozes, it is usually not physically addicting. However, when it is consumed in higher doses, the person may suffer withdrawal symptoms when the drugs were stopped. Based on studies, people who had been treated by these two ways were 68% recovered or less impaired than untreated controls (Noyes et al., 1980) Hence both drugs and psychotherapy are often used together to treat patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Panic Disorder Research shows that panic disorder is an emotional disturbance which is found in about 1-2% of all American Adults, women more than men and is rare among children (McNally, 1990; Myers et al., 1984; Robins et al., 1984). According to the DSM-III-R, panic disorders are different from generalized anxiety disorder and the various types of phobias. Patients of panic disorders usually experience unexpected and severe panic attacks that may last for only a few minutes to a few hours. Studies shows that people with this disorder have a fairly constant state of moderate anxiety and an over responsive sympathetic nervous system. When faced a mild stressor, patients may respond with a sudden increase in heart rate and blood adrenaline (Liebowitz et al., 1985; Nutt, 1989). As it attacks suddenly, it can occur anytime, even when the individual are asleep. Although research could not find the specific cause of panic disorder, it is said to be due to an inherited neurochemical abnormality that results the sudden surges of physiological arousal and fear or it may be due to psychological factors such as conditioning and irrational beliefs (McNally 1990). It is also believed that panic disorder is trigger by stress, fear, or even physical activities. When people discover that by doing this physical activity will cause a panic attack, they tend to avoid the activity completely, causing them to be more sensitive towards the effect of that particular physical activity. Hence, for example, they tend to suffer from panic attacks due to the slightest exertion that will cause their heart rate to increase, in which they will start to perceive as a panic attack because of their persistent worry of having this attack again. Therefore, professionals usually suggest the patient to have regular exercise as a treatment for panic disorder (Ledwidge, 1980) Base on prior studies, panic disorders are usually treated with a combination of benzodiazepines or antidepressants and psychotherapy. With this combination, it can be usually treated successfully in a period of 3 to 8 months (Ballenger 1991). Phobias According to Zimbardo Gerrig in their book Psychology and Life, they stated that a person suffers from phobia when he suffers from a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity or situation that is excessive and unreasonable given the reality of the threat. This means that that person may show intense fear of something, in which normal people may not have such intense fear of it. This shows that phobias have a distinct different from the meaning of fear. Fear, on the other hand, is a rational reaction to an objectively identified external danger that will cause the person to escape or attack in self-defense. What it means by objectively identified external danger are such as sudden natural disaster or there is fire at one ¿Ã‚ ½Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s home. These stimuli are perceived as dangerous and it is rational to have fear against it. Phobias causes significant distress and it interferes with the adjustment in life of that that individual (Zimbardo Gerrig, 1996). James W. Kalat even define phobia as a fear so extreme that it interferes with normal living. For example, normal people may have fear against some insect such as bees or even spiders. But these fears did not interfere with their function of living and it did not stop them from achieving their goal. It is only diagnosed as phobia if this fear interferes with the normal functionality of their life. The DSM-IV divides phobia into two categories, namely social phobias and specific phobias. Rod Plotnik define social phobia as phobias which are brought on by the presence of other people. This further means that that person feels uneasy in a public location because they are fear of the presence of others around them. People suffering from social phobia may have stage fright and always fear that they will act something embarrassing in public. Surveys show that approximately 13.3 percent of U.S. adults have experienced social phobia (Kessler et al., 1994). On the other hand, specific phobias occur when a patient produces response towards several different types of objects or situations (Zimbardo Gerrig, 1996). Some people may have intense fear of height, while some towards snake which may due to prior conditioning. Different people with specific phobias may have different thing or stimulus which they are afraid of. Phobias can last a lifetime as people tend to avoid the stimulus which they are afraid of. Hence it is very difficult for a phobia to extinguish itself. Hence the therapies which are usually used to cure phobias are systematic desensitization and flooding. Systematic desensitization is known as the most common and successful therapy to treat phobias. It is a method of reducing fear by gradually exposing the patient to the object which they fear (Wolpe, 1961). For instance, if a person is afraid of snakes, they are asked to slowly approach a snake through stages. For the first stage they may just need to imagine about an image of a snake, as the person is ready, they are then exposed to the real stimulus. However, the patient can stop the process whenever they feel distress about it. This shows that the process resembles Skinners shaping procedure. Flooding, also known as implosion is a treatment in which differ from systematic desensitization. Base on Hogan and Kirchner, this treatment is conducted by exposing the object of the phobia suddenly, rather than gradually. This approach is basically treating phobia by believing that the human sympathetic nervous system is unable to maintain an extreme arousal for a very long period of time, in which the body will start to adapt and the fear will start to subside. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders According to Jeanne Segal, Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors in which the individual feel compelled to perform. As the name implies, this disorder consists of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are involuntary, uncontrollable thoughts, images or impulses that tend to occur over and over again in the mind unconsciously. For example, the person may repetitively think that they may not lock the door yet, although they already did. These thinking are usually disturbing and may cause stress to the person. On the other hand, compulsions are repetitive behaviors or rituals in which the person is driven to carry out again and again (Melinda Smith, 2008). This means that the action is taken again and again to reduce the discomfort of the previously repeating obsessions. For instance, the patient may repetitively checking whether he had turn off the oven even though he had checked it again and again for the past few hours. This may then interfere with the normal routine of the individual ¿Ã‚ ½Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s daily life especially their social and occupational functioning. According to Rapoport, obsessive-compulsive disorder can be treated by exposing the person to the very situation or object in which the individual is attempting to avoid. He further suggests that if this treatment does not work, clomipramine can be used as medication. This antidepressant drug is usually used simultaneously with exposure therapy for an efficient result. Furthermore, researchers also found out that about 80% of the patients had maintained their improved status of reducing their rituals from 5 hours to 1 hour a day (OSullivan et al., 1991). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a disorder in which it develops following a traumatic event that threatens ones safety or create a helpless feeling towards that individual (Robert Segal,2008). Traumatic events are such as car crash, kidnapping, natural disasters, rape case, war etc. These events somehow create fear towards the individual in which it develops into PTSD. Studies shows that rape victim are among the group are most likely to develop this disorder (Green, 1994). After the individual experience a traumatic event, the body will be in a state of shock. If the individual make sense of what had happened, they tend to come out of it. But if the individual remain in psychological shock, PTSD will then develop. Zimbardo Gerrig defines this disorder as an anxiety disorder that is characterized by persistent re-experience of traumatic events through dreams, hallucinations or flashbacks. The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder usually arises suddenly, gradually or continuously over time (Melinda Smith, 2008). Sometimes it may also be triggered by a stimulus that is related to the traumatic event. For example, victims who are raped in a car tend to have PTSD when they see a car. PTSD can be treated by encouraging the victim to face the trauma they have experienced rather than to avoid them. There are four types of treatments for PTSD, namely Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, Family therapy and medications (Robert Segal, 2008). The Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy involves exposing the victim towards thoughts, feelings and situations that will remind the victim about the trauma. This therapy also encourages the victim to identify upsetting thoughts of the event and replacing them with a more balanced picture. The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing incorporates the elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy with eye movements or other forms of rhythmic stimulations. For instance, hand taps or sounds. This therapy is believed to unfreeze the brains information processing system which is interrupted in times of extreme stress. It is also used to free the frozen emotional fragments whic h retained their original intensity; they can be integrated into a cohesive memory. Family therapy is a therapy in which family members around the victim help the loved ones to understand and support what they are going through. Last but not least, medication can be prescribed to relive secondary symptoms such as depression or anxiety, but it will not cure the causes of PTSD. General Symptoms of Anxiety Disorder According to Jeanne Segal, anxiety disorders share one major symptom, which is persistent or severe fear or worry in situations in which normal people would not feel threatened. In addition to the primary symptoms of irrational and excessive worry and fear, emotional symptoms of anxiety disorder includes: having trouble concentrating, tension, irritability, restlessness, anticipating the worst, apprehension feelings and have the tendency to focus more on signs of danger. On the other hand, physical symptoms are involved because anxiety makes the body to produce a fight-or-flight response. Common physical symptoms include pounding heart, sweating, muscle tensions, fatigue, insomnia, shortness of breath, stomach upset, and etc. Anxiety sufferers often mistook these physical symptoms as symptoms of medical illness, causing them to visit the hospital numerous times before discovering their disorder. Causes of Anxiety Disorder Many psychologists suggest that the development of anxiety disorder with the four etiological approaches, namely biological, psychodynamic, behavioral and cognitive (Zimbardo Gerrig, 1996). Biological Seligman proposed a hypothesis called as the preparedness hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that human carry around an evolutionary tendency to respond quickly and thoughtlessly to once-feared stimuli. This hypothesis attempts to explain why only certain phobias are more common than fears of other dangers. For example, the fear of snakes and height are more common than the fear of electricity. He further proposed that at one time in the evolutionary past, certain fear enhanced our ancestors chances of survival. Besides that, he also thinks that there is a possibility where human are born with a predisposition to fear whatever is related to sources of serious danger in the evolutionary past. However, this hypothesis did not explain the other types of phobias which develop in response to objects or situations that would not have had survival meaning over evolutionary theory, such as the fear of driving or elevators. A research conducted with identical and fraternal twins shows another evidence of a biological role in anxiety disorders. This research suggests a genetic basis for the predisposition to experience four of the five categories of anxiety disorders (Skre et al., 1993). It suggest that the probability of a pair of identical twins both suffered from a panic disorder is twice the probability of both fraternal twins were sufferers. However, phobia shows no genetic evidence because it is develop more purely environmental origins for those disorders. Psychodynamic According to Zimbardo Gerrig, this model is based on the assumption that the symptoms of anxiety disorders actually comes from an underlying psychic conflicts or fears. These symptoms are actually attempts to protect the individual from psychological pain. For example, in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the obsessive behavior seems to be an attempt to displace anxiety created by a related but far more feared conflict or desire. Hence, in order to gain some relief, the individual then substitute an obsession towards something that symbolically captures the forbidden impulse. Another example is such as a child with a record of childhood abuse develops the obsessive-compulsive disorder. The child may have different types of compulsion so that she will feel being in control and not bullied by someone else and this soothes anxiety of losing control or doing something wrong that will cause her family to beat her up. In a nutshell, the individual actually carry out minor task repetitively to avoid the original issue that is creating unconscious conflict. Behavioral This factor focus on the way symptoms of anxiety disorders are conditioned or reinforced. The Classical conditioning theory proposed by Ivan Pavlov is often used to explain the development of phobias, which are seen as classically conditioned fears. This means that the object in which the individual phobia of may be a neutral stimulus but became something a phobia stimulus after it is paired with a frightening experience. For example, an individual might not be afraid of a dog before the incident in which he is bitten by a dog. From that incident, the individual is conditioned that all dogs will bite and thus cause him to have a fear of dogs. As what the obsessive-compulsive example above suggests, the compulsive behaviors tend to reduce the unconscious anxiety associated with the obsessive thoughts. This can be explained from the behavioral aspect. As the individual reduce the unconscious anxiety through his compulsive behaviors, it reinforces the compulsive behaviors as it causes a sense of temporary relieve. Cognitive Sufferers of anxiety disorder tend to perceive their distress as a sign of impending disaster. Their reaction may set off a vicious cycle in which the person fears disaster, which in turn leads to an increase of the anxiety level even more, which cause the anxiety sensation to worsen and confirms the person ¿Ã‚ ½Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s fear (Beck Emery, 1985). Research also found out that anxious patients maintain their anxiety by employing cognitive biases that highlight the threatening of the stimuli (MacLeod et al., 1986). The result of this study suggest that anxious patients may have bias in attending or encoding that makes them more likely to notice a threatening stimuli. Neuromolecular Studies show that levels of some neurotransmitter in the body contributes to anxiety disorder. For instance, low levels of GABA, which reduces the activity in the central nervous system, will contribute to anxiety (Lydiard RB, Nemeroff CB, 2003). Recent studies also suggest that the effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in alleviating anxiety may result from a direct action on GABA neurons (Taylor M, 2004). Effect of Anxiety Disorder According to Kendall Genre, an anxiety disorder can affect one ¿Ã‚ ½Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s family and friends in a number of ways. When one has anxiety disorder, the symptoms which they experience, such as insomnia, irritability, tension can affect his or her interpersonal relationships with his or her family and friends. Besides that, the symptoms of anxiety disorder may abrupt the normal function of that individual in his daily life (Kendall Genre, 2008). The individual may not be able to do his or her work efficiently which may be related to the symptoms one suffered due to anxiety disorder. For example, if the individual suffers from insomnia, he will be fatigue the next day and causing lack of concentration in fulfilling his task properly. Symptoms may last for days, causing the sufferer having difficulty to cope it, which then cause them to unable to function properly (Judith Boucher, 2007) Furthermore, some anxiety disorder such as panic disorder and Post-traumatic stress disorder may cause the individual to avoid things that will trigger the disorder (Kendall Genre, 2008). Avoidance then causes the individual to unable to function ones daily life normally. For instance, if a person is afraid of car due to an incident which she was rape in a car, she will avoid going on cars and thus circumscribed her ability to interact socially in such a way that her family, friends and coworkers are affected. She can no longer drive out to have tea with her friends because she wants to avoid being in a car. Better Daoust suggest that anxiety disorder especially panic disorder can cause the body to take a lot of punishment due to its broad symptoms. Panic attack can generate long term stress related problems that are quite serious. First of all, the heart will suffer first from a panic attack. If it is not handled properly, it will affect the functions of other organs in the body too. During a panic attack, the lungs will work harder and the heart pumps faster because there is a lack of cellular support, the brain dedicates energy to somewhere else. Hence, she suggests that panic attack is a multi-system attacker. Anxiety disorders are often comorbid with other serious psychiatric disorders, particularly common, depression and substance abuse (Kendall Genre, 2008). This means that a patient of anxiety disorder has a very high possibility to suffer from depression or substance abuse.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Domestic Violence Against Men Essay -- Violence Against Women Essays

The first reaction upon hearing about the topic of battered men, for many people, is that of incredulity. Battered husbands are a topic for jokes (such as the cartoon image of a woman chasing her husband with a rolling-pin). One researcher noted that wives were the perpetrators in 73% of the depictions of domestic violence in newspaper comics (Saenger 1963). Battered husbands have historically been either ignored or subjected to ridicule and abuse. In 18th-century France, a battered husband "was made to wear an outlandish outfit and ride backwards around the village on a donkey" (Steinmetz & Lucca 1988). Even those of us who like to consider ourselves liberated and open-minded often have a difficult time even imagining that husband battering could take place. Although feminism has opened many of our eyes about the existance of domestic violence, and newspaper reports often include incidents of abuse of wives, the abuse of husbands is a rarely discussed phenomenon. One reason researchers and others had not chosen to investigate husband battering is because it was thought to be a fairly rare occurrence. Police reports seemed to bear this out (Steinmetz 1977), with in some cases a ratio of 12 to 14.5 female victims to every one male victim. But another reason is that because women were seen as weaker and more helpless than men due to sex roles, and men on the other hand were seen as more sturdy and self-reliant, the study of abused husbands seemed relatively unimportant. Research begins to show the reality In 1974, a study was done which compared male and female domestic violence. In that study, it was found that 47% of husbands had used physical violence on their wives, and 33% of wives had used violence on their husbands (Gelles 1974). Half of the respondents in this study were selected from either cases of domestic violence reported to the police, or those identified by the social service agency. Also in 1974, a study was released showing that the number of murders of women by men (17.5% of total homicides) was about the same as the number of murders of men by women (16.4% of total homicides). This study (Curtis 1974), however, showed that men were three times as likely to assault women as vice-versa. These statistics came from police records. [The murder statistic was no big news, by the way. In 1958, an investigation of spousal hom... ...and Divorce Today "First Large-Scale Study Reveals Elder Abuse is Primarily by Wives Against Husbands" December 15, 1986 Mercy, J.A. & Saltzman, L.E. "Fatal violence among spouses in the United States, 1976-85" American Journal of Public Health 79(5): 595-9 May 1989 Nagi, Saad Child Maltreatment in the United States Columbia University Press, New York, p. 47, 1977 Nisonoff, L. & Bitman, I "Spouse Abuse: Incidence and Relationship to Selected Demographic Variables" Victimology 4, 1979, pp. 131-140 O'Leary, K. Daniel; Arias, Ilena; Rosenbaum, Alan & Barling, Julian "Premarital Physical Aggression" State University of New York at Stony Brook & Syracuse University Rooke, Margaret "Violence in the Home" RadioTimes 16-22 March 1991 p. 8. Saenger, G. "Male and female relation in the American comic strips" in The funnies: An American idiom M. White & R.H. Abel editors, The Free Press, Glencoe IL, 1963, p. 219-223 Sexuality Today Newsletter "Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships Common, New Survey Reveals" December 22, 1986 (reporting on a report in Social Work contact Karen Brockopp) pp 2-3. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1987 table 277

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Blade Runner and Frankenstein: A Comparison

Texts, in order to effectively convey a message, commonly reflect on social views, attitudes and contextual values. A comparison between Ridley Scotts sci-fi thriller â€Å"Blade Runner: the Directors Cut† and the Mary Shelley’s classic gothic novel â€Å"Frankenstein† will reveal that there are elements of human nature which will remain constant over time. These two texts reflect of the possibility of scientific and technological development and caution about possible physical and moral consequences of this development.The seductive nature of knowledge is explored in both texts as the fine line that separates man and monster is revealed as our capacity for true human emotion is questioned. As a critique of scientific and enlightened rationalism, Shelley’s gothic text â€Å"Frankenstein† explores the duality of the human condition as man is capable of both good and evil. Walton’s letters portray man’s capacity for arrogance and moral b lindness and foreshadow the subsequent folly committed by Dr Frankenstein. The sun is for ever visible, its broad disk just skirting the horizon, and diffusing a perpetual splendor† Walton’s romantic ideals are juxtaposed with his own arrogance as he refers to Shakespeare’s play Macbeth â€Å"but success shall crown my endeavors. Wherefore not? † Shelley’s intertextual allusion to Macbeth portrays the arrogance Walton holds about his voyages success. Just as Macbeth was ambition, so to does Walton lose his moral direction on his question for discovery. This aptitude is characteristic of romantic writers in the 1700’s who similarly used to romantic writing styles to contrast mans moral blindness.Similarly, Ridley Scott also explores the moral blindness of humans as the pragmatism of the 80’s is reflected though the loss of god in the dystopian 2019 Los Angles. Through corporate prosperity, Scott suggests that god has been replaced by th e creator, Tyrell. â€Å"Nothing the god of bio-mechanics wouldn’t let you in heaven for† the direct allusion of Tyrell to â€Å"the god of bio-mechanics† reflects that Tyrell, as the owner of the supreme corporation on earth has been elevated to a god like status, reflecting the importance of corporate dominance in the 80’s.As Roy confronts Tyrell, the creator plays with an extravagant, human like chess set, symbolic of his god like status over humans. Tyrell’s eyes are hidden behind the glare of his glasses as he peers over the figures, his tone as he confronts Roy is arrogant as he states â€Å"the light that burns twice as bright, burns half as long, and you have burned so bright† the objectification of Roy dehumanizes and belittles the replicant and portrays Tyrell’s control and dominance over humanity. Humanity has been embedded with the capacity to celebrate the divinity of nature and this appreciation of the natural world is a key element of the human spirit.Shelley’s text â€Å"Frankenstein† reflects the Romantic’s pantheistic view of god and nature as the two are inextricably linked. The Romantic belief that god is revealed through the natural world is shown as Frankenstein takes solace in the sublime beauty of nature. â€Å"The vary winds whispered in soothing accents, and maternal nature bade me weep no more† the personification of the wind and comparison of natural to a mother reflects the romantic influences over Shelley as nature is portrayed as divine and splendid. Similarly, other characters in the novel also marvel at the magnificence of nature.Walton, in his letters, reflects on the beauty of the Artic on his voyage â€Å"Sailing over a calm sea, we may be wafted to a land surpassing in wonders and in beauty every region hitherto discovered on the habitable globe† Walton fascination with the discovery and exploration of the Artic also reproduces Shelleyâ€⠄¢s romantic ideals, reflecting the romantic writers common pre-occupation with the unspoiled domain of the artic. The dangers of circumventing the natural order are also explored in Ridley Scotts â€Å"Blade Runner: The Directors Cut†. The text reflects how nature has been compromised for industrial profit of transnational corporations.The soaring oblique camera angle and the hellish image of fire, works with the dramatic, eerie music at the beginning of the film to suggest the capitalistic world has destroyed the natural world for the creation of profit. The film noir technique used throughout the film adds a sense of lifelessness to the Los Angles environment and offers contrast to Frankenstein, where nature is respected and revered. Scott uses his text to didactically warn the audience about the degradation of the natural environment as the capitalist world of Los Angles and the on world colony has become degraded urban sprawl devoid of natural life.In Blade Runner, the n atural world is represented by the breakdown of the physical environment. In Frankenstein, the natural world is broken down morally as the creator defies the natural order. Ultimately both texts caution against the perception that all progress is beneficial. Shelley’s Frankenstein and Ridley Scotts Blade Runner each challenge human supremacy as the created is portrayed as moral, emotionally and physically superior to their creator. The Replicants in Scotts Blade Runner challenge this Darwinian view of human supremacy as, in contrast to the humans of LA 2019; they are emotive, compassionate and moral. All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in rain† the raw emotion shown by Roy as his image is silhouetted against filtered blue light life reflects the elements of humanity that have been lost in the dystopic world as the replicants are the only beings capable of true emotive, human behavior. Similarly, Shelley’s Frankenstein portrays the reversal of the D arwinian Theory with Frankenstein creating a being superior physically and emotionally to man.Shelley uses the Romantic belief of the loss of innocence, shown in the inter-textual allusion to Milton’s â€Å"Paradise lost† as the monster is portrayed as benevolent and being capable of both compassion and love, similar to man before his expulsion from the Garden of Eden. â€Å"I ought to be thy Adam; but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed† the biblical allusion to Adam and the Devil portray the monsters human elements as he is shown as compassionate, intelligent and munificent â€Å"I was benevolent and good, misery made me a fiend† contrasting Frankenstein who seems incapable of showing human emotion.Shelley uses the rivalry between Victor and his Creature to reflect the hostility between the devil and god in Milton’s epic poem â€Å"Paradise lost†, Shelley was influenced by her husbands writing on the poe m and used his general interpretation to present the antagonism between Frankenstein and his monster.Despite the different contexts of both Shelly’s Frankenstein and Scott’s Blade Runner, each texts reflects similar themes and a further knowledge and greater understanding of context enables the reader to hold a deeper appreciation of the texts. Both texts challenge our assumption that knowledge is beneficial and expose the physical and moral consequences of circumventing the natural order. However the two texts question our more primal practices as each they question to what extent our human nature has remained the same.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Comparing Manchester Airport to Starbucks

One of the aims of Starbucks is Global Responsibility. This is similar to Manchester Airport's aim Environmentally Friendly because Manchester Airport is planning to cut the amount of CO2 emissions and recycle more; also Manchester Airport provide triple glazing windows for people who live very close to Manchester Airport so that they aren't affected by the sound. Starbucks is intending to make 100% of their cups recyclable by 2015, also to make 100% of their coffees in high quality, to contribute over 1 million lion hours of community service by 2015, to make 100% of their coffees fair traded. Also Starbucks is aiming to reduce energy and water conservation plus, Starbucks staff cleans their equipments such as mugs, cups etc, so that it's re-usable. These are similar because both of the company is planning to make the environment better by recycling plus they both care about other people and the planet because Manchester Airport is providing triple glazing windows, in addition, Starbucks is paying their farmers with fair trade. This shows that both of the company care about other people because they provide something to customers so that it's suitable in the condition they live in. Differences They are also different because Manchester Airport runs only in tertiary sector because they provide a service to people. Starbucks runs on entire sector primary, secondary and tertiary because they pay farmers to grow the beans so they are primary, they are in the secondary sector because they roast the beans into coffee, and they are in the tertiary sector because they sell the products and provide a service to customers. In addition there is also a big difference between both because Starbucks sells products such as coffees, cold drinks, equipments etc. Also Starbucks produces its own product. Manchester Airport only rents out space to Airlines. Starbucks serves cold drinks, hot drinks, muffins and cake and more and they even merchandise cups with the Starbucks logo on it. Manchester Airport provides a service; they have shops in the airport so that you can buy food and drinks. Plus on top Manchester Airport's activities has a massive difference compared to Starbucks the only similarity is that they both work in the tertiary sector plus, they both provide a service to customers. Starbucks coffee company and Manchester airport are very different business so their activities are not similar at all. Starbucks activities involve selling more than just coffee; they sell cold beverages, hot beverages and have a wide variety of different types of teas. Starbucks also sell merchandise such as Which Business is bigger? Starbucks business is far bigger than Manchester Airport; this is because Starbucks run internationally, Starbucks runs in more than 55 countries and they have 16,635 stores worldwide therefore, they are making massive profit worldwide and so they would need more staff to operate the business. Manchester Airport has only has one airport in Manchester, they are not an international business so they make less profit and so they have less staff. Competitors Competitors Manchester Airport – Liverpool and Heathrow Both of the company's competitors are similar because their rivals do exactly the same thing. Cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Nero and Costa Coffee is Starbucks rival runs in all of the sectors, pay their farmers with fair trade, provide coffee and recipes, provide cold drinks and sell equipment, for example espresso machine and filter machine. Costa Coffee sells coffees such as espresso, cappuccino, Americano etc. These drinks are exactly the same as what Starbucks provide. However Cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Nero has a different theme which is used on its website, it's very different compared to Starbucks, Cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Nero has a black background on its website and the logo is just a plain blue rectangle box that says Cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Nero. This website doesn't look that appealing, because it's very plain nor does it look posh. Costa Coffee website theme is a maroon background and a plain white logo saying â€Å"Costa†. Starbucks logo looks more nicer than Cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Nero and Costa Coffee because it's not just plain it's a circle logo that says â€Å"Starbucks Coffee† and on the centre it shows a coffee, the background of the website is cream and has a picture of a leaf at the back, the website is also well organised, it's more far more easier to navigate therefore it would be more appealing to customers. I think that Costa Coffee won't be able to compete well against Starbucks because they only have 442 Stores and also Cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Nero has only 520 shops worldwide, whereas Starbucks has 16,635 Stores, Starbucks website looks far more organised and more expensive than both of their competitors therefore, I believe that Starbucks are successful on being competitive. Liverpool and Heathrow Airport are just exactly same as Manchester Airport because they rent out space to airlines and provide a service to customers. Heathrow is Manchester Airports main UK competition because it has 5 terminals, more airlines fly from there, particularly long haul flights to the US with British Airports. To compete Manchester Airport could rent out to airlines for less money so that they try to gain more business with long haul companies such as continental virgin Atlantic. Liverpool John Lennon Airport is main local competition – they specialise in Budget Airlines such as Ryan air and Easy jet, therefore Manchester Airport has got to attract budget airlines. Qatar airlines fly from Manchester Airport. Manchester Airport has better services such as shops, restaurants etc. Heathrow Airport has 67 million customers every year, whereas Manchester Airport has only 53 Million customers every year. So I believe that Manchester Airport isn't that good at competing with other airlines, however they can improve by making more space so that more airlines can fly, and make more long haul flights and rent space to airlines for cheaper so that they get more airlines.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Wellness Tourism Essays

Wellness Tourism Essays Wellness Tourism Essay Wellness Tourism Essay The Holistic Approach Of Ayurveda Based Wellness Tourism In Kerala RAMESH U *Assistant Professor, College of Engineering, Munnar, Kerala Tel: 04865 230606,232989 (Off), Mob: 094472 46162, Fax: 04865 232106 E Mail : [emailprotected] com ABSTRACT Wellness, in general, is used to mean a healthy balance of the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being. It is a multidimensional state of being, describing the existence of positive health in an individual as exemplified by quality of life. Health/Wellness tourism refers to trips that are taken by tourists with the principle purpose being to improve their health and/or wellbeing. The wide use of alternative medicines makes India a particularly intriguing destination, and can bill itself as a holistic health solution. Kerala has been well known for hundreds of years for its practice of Ayurveda-a system of medicine that believes not simply treating the ailment but attending to the whole person. Keralas equable climate, natural abundance of forests (with a wealth of herbs and medicinal plants) and the cool monsoon season (June November) are best suited for curative and restorative packages. Before or after their treatment- or both- medical travelers can enjoy Kerala’s many popular tourist destinations. Whether they enjoy heritage tourism, or viewing wildlife, a beach vacation, or back water experiences, Kerala has a great deal to offer. The concept of health holiday, now better known as Wellness holiday, is based on the principles of Ayurveda, meditation, yoga, physical exercises and a balanced diet. It is like rejuvenation and clean up process on all levels physical, mental and emotional. Ayurveda deals elaborately with measures for healthful living during the entire span of life and its various phases. Besides, dealing with principles for maintenance of health, it has also developed a wide range of therapeutic measures to combat illness. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the reason as to why Kerala is being chosen as a preferred destination for Wellness Tourism and to explore the current opportunities and facilities offered to the Wellness seekers. Key Words: Well being, Health holiday, Ayurveda, Rejuvenation. INTRODUCTION More than 50 years ago, the World Health Organization defined health as more than freedom from illness, disease, and debilitating conditions (WHO, 1947). The suggestion by World Health Organization that health had a positive component led to the use of the term wellness- now widely used to describe the state of being representing that positive component (Corbin, Pangrazi, Franks, 2000). Halbert Dunn developed the philosophy of wellness tourism to illustrate about a special state of health comprising an overall sense of wellbeing which sees man as consisting of body, spirit, mind and being dependent on his environment (Dunn, H. L, 1965). It is a concept that is attractive to visitors who love combining wellbeing and lifestyle healthcare services with the strong desire to travel overseas. The global advancement in medical research and technologies, increased facililities of transportation and demand of immediate quality healthcare have provided the patients worldwide to travel abroad for treatments. The Indian healthcare industry has realized the potential of this niche market and has begun to tailor their services for international visitors (Ilyas, 2008). Government and private sector studies in India estimate that medical tourism could bring between $1 billion and $2 billion US into the country by 2012. The reports estimate that medical tourism to India is growing by 30 per cent a year. In order to qualify as a contemporary wellness tourism experience, we would contend that some deliberate contribution has to be made to psychological, spiritual or emotional well-being in addition to physical. This takes wellness tourism from the realm of being merely a passive form of tourism with a focus on escapism to one where tourists are purposefully driven by the desire to actively seek enhanced wellness. Arguably, however, there had been an unprecedented intensification in the pursuit of wellness in the history of Tourism in the recent years (Smith Kelly, 2006). The present trend, however, is for western tourists to seek solace in Eastern philosophies and therapies (e. g. , Chinese medicine, Buddhist meditation, Indian Ayurveda, Thai massage). With more people in the west realizing the effectiveness of traditional and natural medicines in treating chronic diseases over modern medicines using chemical drugs, the scopes provided by Kerala is getting an upper hand in the Modern world. The Ayurvedic system of medicine has become very popular among tourists in the recent times. Ayurveda has its own comprehensive way of understanding the body, of what causes diseases, how to prevent them, how to relieve and cure them, methods of preparing therapeutic medicines using herbs and oils, rejuvenation and methods of surgery. Kerala is the only place where Ayurveda is practiced in its true and authentic form. Wellness related tourism services provided by Kerala are now the most debated topic among the tourists and health care tourism providers’ world wide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the holistic approach offered to the wellness seekers visiting Kerala through the traditional therapies and the factors that sustain this unique tourism product. DISCUSSION Health is god given and a natural phenomenon. It is a law of the nature to protect the human beings from diseases. The fast paced lifestyle and stressful job coupled with lack of exercise and excessive eating habits have made the modern executive human to a variety of ailments. Even though the technological advancement of modern medicine is tremendous, its capacity for controlling and preventing diseases has gone down considerably. People are taking a lot more of drugs than they used to, and drug costs are inflating at a higher rate than any other component of health care (Angel, 2004). There have been some attempts to classify specific measures of Wellness, such factors as personal energy, ability to enjoy leisure, better self-image and self-confidence, to name but a few(Cooper, 1982). Medical tourism can be broadly defined as provision of cost effective private medical care in collaboration with the tourism industry for patients needing surgical and other forms of specialized treatment. Tourism in its initial stages was directly aimed at increasing health and well being of people. In the present decade, the attempt to achieve better health while on a holiday through relaxation, exercise or visits to spas has been taken into a new level, with the emergence of a distinct niche in the tourism industry, â€Å"Wellness Tourism†, where tourism is deliberately linked to direct health interventions and the outcomes are expected to be substantial. The growing world wide focus on health and well being has led to an enormous increase in the wellness facilities in India. The country’s National Health Policy declares that treatment of foreign patients is legally an export nd deemed eligible for all fiscal incentives extended to export earnings. The increasing attractiveness and economic significance of health and Wellness tourism is further apparent in the growth of both domestic and international visitors since the beginning of this decade. India is the most touted healthcare destination for countries like South-East Asia, Middle East, Africa, Mauritius, Ta nzania, Bangladesh and Yemen with 12 per cent patient inflow from developing countries. An estimated 150,000 medical tourists visited India during 2007, representing a 20% jump over the previous year and reports reveal that the earnings from Ayurveda Tourism alone amounted to Rs 60 billion. Table 1 indicates the foreign tourist arrivals and the foreign exchange earnings from 1996 to 2006. India has a huge diversity of holiday options ranging from the beaches of Goa, the mighty Himalayas, thousands of years of culture, diverse wildlife and of course the Ayurveda based wellness facilities offered by Kerala. The added attractions to patients who wish to avail treatment in India is medical visa, it will now be easier to travel to India as the visa could be extended without any problem. Apart from the competitive pricing and specialized Medicare facililities, the Ayurveda based traditional treatments offered by Kerala has now emerged as the USP for India to develop as the most sought after healthcare destination in the World. Ayurveda based Wellness facilities Offered by Kerala Kerala – The mesmerizing land located in the south of India enjoys geographical features that are unique and rich. Kerala is one of the few blessed lands in the world that is networked by forty four rivers. These rivers are also known as the â€Å"backwaters of Kerala† and it stretches up to almost 1900 kilometers. Kerala has some of the amazing, most charming beaches of the world. The colourful beaches always remain bathed in the golden rays of the sun and the tourists who spent their time here gets captivated by the ever glowing beauty of this picturesque land. It has a 600 km long shoreline dotted with coconut groves, natural harbors, lagoons and sheltered coves. Kerala has some of the finest hill stations in India with the entire Western Ghats studded with evergreens, rolling grasslands, sholas and stretches of rejuvenating fragrance of tea and coffee plantations. Table 2 indicates the arrival rate of foreign tourists to India and the state wise break up highlighting the position of Kerala during the years 2005 and 2006. This state is also the only place in India which practices Ayurveda in its purest form. Ayurveda is the traditional Indian system of medicine that has brought true health, happiness and wellbeing to millions of individuals throughout the ages. This ancient art of healing has been in practice for over 5000years, and was also the mainstream medicine in the ancient times. Derived from its ancient Sanskrit roots – â€Å"ayus† (life) and â€Å"ved† (knowledge) – and offering a rich, comprehensive outlook to a healthy life, it is the only medical science in this universe which is useful even when one is not ill. Ayurveda is a complete science of health that is being applicable in all stages of life starting from birth, neonates, infants, childhood, youth, old age and even life before and after death. For many people, the image of Ayurveda is limited to the use of herbal or home/kitchen remedies and a traditional way of treatment. But in reality, Ayurveda is a much serious medical science, which strongly emphasizes on the diagnosis, examination, analysis of the disease, diet, medicinal properties, dose, frequency of the medicine and the medium with which it should be consumed (Kulkarni, 2008). These factors are highly crucial in achieving a complete cure and restore the balance and harmony of an individual, resulting in self-healing, good health and longevity. The Medicare in Ayurveda has broadly two parts: one is preservation of health and prevention of diseases and the second, diseases and their treatment. In Ayurvedic terminology, the first is â€Å"Swasthavritha† and the later is â€Å"Athuravritha†. Ayurveda follows a totally different way of treating diseases known as â€Å"Panchakarma†, which means literally â€Å"Five Therapies† which are the subtly harmonizing purification procedures that dissolve metabolic waste products and toxins generated from the environmental ill effects, in a gentle and effective way from the tissues and eliminate them from the body. The five therapies are namely:- Vamana- emetic and administration of drugs to produce vomiting, Virechana- administration of drugs for purgation, Nasyam- administration of drugs through nasal cavities, Anuvasana- rectal administration of medicated oil preparation and Nirooha- rectal administration of herbal decoctions. This treatment is advisable to the diseased as well as the healthy. In healthy persons, it is performed as a measure for health preservation. Ayurveda also has a comprehensive system of massages and body treatments that gives relief from a wide range of illnesses, from migraine and sinus to arthritis and paralysis; that detoxify and cleans the body through controlled emesis, purgation, making the individual sweat; and that makes the body receptive to further treatment. Apart from the above mentioned therapies, Ayurveda offers something special for the middle aged tourists – â€Å"Rasayana† Treatment. The Rasayana method of treatment is considered to be a measure to check and prevent the process of natural degeneration and decay by maintaining the strength of tissues (Varier, 1986). Ayurveda also claims that surgery may always be the last option in case of the treatment of an ailment. Natural medicines like herbs and minerals can all be partaken as food and not medicine as such, since their composition is all natural. These therapies are more effective in Kerala due to the almost year around humid climate of the state. Even though our country is facing stiff competitions from other Wellness facilitation destinations in Asia – Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines, the traditional and natural medical practices offered by Kerala Ayurveda is helping in attracting medical tourists from US, Europe and other Middle Eastern countries, increasingly, to seek solace as to their belief and reality, as Ayurveda extends excellent treatments for ailments like Osteo-Arthritis, Rheumatic Arthritis, Tennis Elbow and Carpel Tunnel Syndrome, Spondylosis, Intervertibular disc prolapse, Frozen Shoulder, Insomnia, Migraine, Skin Diseases and of course Weight management. Table 3 indicates the variety of Ayurvedic treatments offered for different ailments. Kerala is now considered as one of the best places for alternative healthcare treatments and because of this popularity, the number of Ayurvedic centers opening up across the state is also substantially increasing. With a view to facilitate the wellness tourism industry to achieve the targets and to give a greater momentum for this growth, the Ministry of Tourism, Government of Kerala, in association with the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine has identified an urgent need to evaluate the safety and service standards of the prevailing and newly establishing Ayurveda centers and classify them accordingly. Standards have been set in terms of Personnel – Qualified physicians and masseurs having sufficient degree and training from recognized Ayurveda institutions, Quality of medicines and Health programmes – Prior approval by the advisory committee for the levels of treatments, clear exhibition of the treatment programmes offered and usage of medicines manufactured by approved firms with proper labeling, Equipments Standards are fixed for the size and make of massage tables, facilities for medicated hot water , sterilization, electric/ gas stove and the hygiene , Facilities in terms of number of treatment rooms with prescribed size , proper ventilation and attached bathrooms, quality and finishing of floors and walls, consultation room with proper equipments, separate rest rooms, locality , ambience and the cleanliness of surroundings. Ayurvedic centers fulfilling all the mentioned essential conditions are awarded a certification named Olive Leaf. Apart from the same, Government has also set some optional conditions in terms of the construction and architectural features of the building, adequate parking space, facilities for steam bath, separate hall for yoga and meditation, herbal garden attached to the center and the picturesque location. The Ayurveda centers also fulfilling these optional conditions will awarded Green Leaf. The district wise distribution of classified Ayurvedic health centers in Kerala is shown in Table 4. From the past two decades, the necessity for a holistic approach in the treatment of diseases had been an active topic for discussion among the scholars of modern medical sciences (Mohanlal, 2008). As a system of medicine that completely eliminates the disease from the body without causing any side effects, and which ultimately promotes the basic health, Ayurveda stands atop the alternative systems of treatments recognized by the World Health Organization. Many foreign countries have already started Kerala Ayurveda treatment centers and the export of Ayurvedic medicines to international market is increasing in a faster pace day by day. But, to the surprise, foreign tourists are often just as keen to visit the origin of the practice to avail treatments and body purification processes. The basic principles emerging from a holistic outlook, the peculiar and unique techniques of treatments, and the health promoting and non reactive herbal drugs used are the main elements which differentiate Ayurveda from the other prevailing medical systems. CONCLUSION India is one of the countries that have deliberately set out to be a dominant medical tourism destination. A recent trend has shown that people from developed countries are seeking treatment from the health professionals of developing countries. The Indian medical tourism industry is growing at an annual rate of 30 percent and with international traveling becoming easier and affordable and with improvements in healthcare technology and infrastructure across the world, medical tourism is fast becoming a preferable way to mingle leisure with health and wellness. Ayurveda, the traditional system of medicine and health science, is an integral part of Kerala’s culture. In all branches of medicine and health care, Ayurveda has its own, peculiar contributions and tourists from all over the world are seeking healing in numerous Ayurveda Centers in Kerala. In the long run, Wellness tourism can become the niche for foreign revenue generation as there is an increasing trend in the number of visitors to Kerala as wellness seekers. Varsity of the Wellness phenomenon coupled with the mind blowing tourism potential offers a well set choice for international tourists to visit this land better known to the world as ‘Gods Own Country’.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Hoosiers Essay essays

Hoosier's Essay essays The story is based on a true story of how a small town high school basketball team becomes Indiana State Champions in 1954. The film is based on a struggle of a controversial coach that comes to the community and changes the basketball team, community, and his co-workers. The coach has many leadership styles that help attribute to the small high school basket ball team accomplishment of becoming state champions. The coach has recently obtained a position to teach a class and, also, has become the coach of a small town. The coach has a history of coaching basketball and, also, has a record of assaulting a player in the past. His record of assaulting a player has been with him and has not allowed him to coach basketball anymore. Until, he moves to this small community and he is given a second chance to redeem himself. The story starts out where the town is very resistant to change and it makes it hard for the coach to implement change. The coach is very head strong and determined to make the team become one and act as a unit. There are some very good characteristics of the coach that makes him a good leader. The coach has actively gotten involved with the basketball players and the community. The coach is very firm on how the team is to train and how rules will be followed. He is very disciplined and very head strong. At one time in the movie, a team player was interrupting his coaching session and the two players decided to keep talking while the coach was lecturing the other players. The coach interrupted the conversation and asked that if the unruly player did not want to be involved with the team and not disrespect his practice session, then he would have to leave. The unruly player decided to l eave practice leaving the coach with only five players to play on the basketball. He was very firm in how his practice sessions would be taught and not allowing any disruptions from any of the team players. He was will ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Reporting Verbs for English Language Learners

Reporting Verbs for English Language Learners Reporting verbs are verbs that serve to report what someone else has said. Reporting verbs are different than the reported speech in that they are used to paraphrase what someone has said. Reported speech is used when reporting exactly what someone has said. To do this, use  say and tell. John told me he was going to stay late at work.Jennifer told Peter she had lived in Berlin for ten years. Peter said he wanted to visit his parents that weekend.My friend said he would finish his work soon. Other verbs used with reported speech include mention and comment. Here are some examples: Tom mentioned he enjoyed playing tennis.Alice mentioned she could take care of the kids this weekend. The teacher commented the students werent getting their homework done on time.The man commented he felt tired after such a long journey. When using reported speech, change the verb used by the original speaker to match your usage. In other words, if you report using said, you need to move everything back one step into the past. There are also pronoun changes and time cue changes that need to be made as appropriate in reported speech.   I like playing tennis. - Tom mentioned he liked playing tennis.  I have lived in Berlin for ten years. - Jennifer told Peter she had lived in Berlin for ten years.   Say and tell are the most common reporting verbs used to report what others have said. However, there are a number of other reporting verbs which can more accurately describe what someone has said. These verbs take a variety of structures that differ from reported speech. For example: Original Statement I will come to your party. I promise. Reported Speech He said he would come to my party. Reporting Verb He promised to come to my party. In this example, reported speech changes the original verb to would as well as changing the possessive pronoun your to my. In contrast, the reporting verb promise is simply followed by the infinitive. There are a number of formulas used with reporting verbs. Use the chart below to identify the structure required.   The following list gives you reporting verbs in various categories based on sentence structure. Note that a number of verbs can take more than one form. verb object infinitive verb infinitive verb (that) verb gerund verb object preposition gerund verb preposition gerund adviseencourageinviteremindwarn agreedecideofferpromiserefusethreaten admitagreedecidedenyexplaininsistpromiserecommendsuggest denyrecommendsuggest accuseblamecongratulate apologizeinsist Examples:Jack encouraged me to look for a new job.They invited all their friends to attend the presentation.Bob warned his friend not to open the can of worms.I advised the students to study carefully for the test. Examples:She offered to give him a lift to work.My brother refused to take no for an answer.Mary decided to attend university.He threatened to sue the company. Examples:Tom admitted (that) he had tried to leave early.She agreed (that) we needed to reconsider our plans.The teacher insisted that he didnt give enough homework.Our manager suggested we take some time off work. Examples:He denied having anything to do with her.Ken suggested studying early in the morning.Alice recommends playing golf in Bend, Oregon. Examples:They accused the boys of cheating on the exam.She blamed her husband for missing the train.The mother congratulated her daughter on graduating from college. Examples:He apologized for being late.She insisted on doing the washing up.Peter apologized for interrupting the meeting. For more information on reported speech, this overview of  reported speech  provides a guide on which transformations are required to use the form. Practice using this form with the  reported speech worksheet   that provides a quick review and exercise. Theres also a  reported speech quiz  which provides immediate feedback on correct or incorrect answers. Teachers can use this guide on  how to teach reported speech  for help introducing the reported speech, as well as a  reported speech lesson plan  and other resources.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Reasons and Ideas of Democracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reasons and Ideas of Democracy - Essay Example Democracy in the modern age is best known by the notion, of a people’s governance style. Usually, a government stands at the epitome of authority and is most likely able to govern its people in accordance with its interests, whether good or bad, preferable or not. Democracy, in the ancient times, was first realized among the Greeks in the early century. The word democracy, in Greek, is a two-word meaning â€Å"the people† and â€Å"to rule†, thus can be seen as a rule governed by the people. At the time, the Greek were closer to their people and better at communication than any other country in the world. The monarchical system was viewed as probably the worst to use in governance. In their governance, everybody was involved in making decisions that affected the country. This made them the most civilized nation then. Greek at the time had not embodied democracy maximally as women were still serving as slaves. Fifty years later, this was no longer the case since women slavery was slowly diminishing, thus embracing full democracy. This idea of democracy was later adapted by several countries but hugely by the Romans. Their government was divided into two branches and issues were voted on in order to make sure that democracy was maintained. In the eighteenth century, several ideas had become prevalent. This was especially enhanced by Christianity that teaches that everyone is equal before the eyes of God. This idea of equality became deeply ingrained by the people, and hence a crucial way of determining how decisions were to be handled in government. Some people may view democracy as the best form of governance while others may see it as the worst form of governance. Freedom has been seen as an essential point of governance especially that Democracy is consisted of it. This makes it the best form to use in governance. Democratic nations have people with freer options as compared to those that use autocracy. These rights include voting for the system of power and determining decisions that impact the country. Other include, working as the opposition in criticizing the government and freedom of speech and expression. The representative democracy started when colonialists wanted a fairer system of taxation, thus including representation of people to be able to have a say in the governance of the country. America may not have followed in the Athenian form of democracy but the representative seemed to work really fine, especially in recognizing people’s rights. While in Cairo, president Obama expressed the different forms of democracy within the United States and showed how they may be embraced by other nations in embracing peace. He showed how ideology was recognized for making democracy more effective as a system of governance. The White House, (2009), in the speech that president Obama delivered in Cairo, the president explains how democracy has helped eliminate religious wars and instill peace within his country. He states that the United States, being amongst the most

Friday, October 18, 2019

Film critiques on One Wonderful Sunday ( Kurosawa, 1947) Essay

Film critiques on One Wonderful Sunday ( Kurosawa, 1947) - Essay Example There is no denying the fact that One Wonderful Sunday is an exquisitely composed, gripping and sometimes frustratingly slow, micro-scale love story that unravels in the times marred by tumultuous and in a sense devastating social and political upheaval and change. The one essential feature that marks the experiences of the young couple on a Sunday, at times trying to engage in affordable recreation, and resorting to a mock rehearsal of their discernibly doomed dreams, is the persistent physical and emotional dislocation they have to grapple with. The landscape through which they pass is typically symbolic in the sense that it is marked by the charred ruins of an old world, interspersed with the enticing and glossy advertising signs indicative of an unavoidable transition to a new order. Amidst this confusing and unsettling background, the two lovers try to yearn for an emotional and mental space where their dreams could have some sort of relevance and scope. With the orphans hauntin g the ruins of a devastated Tokyo, the gumption of the broke and cold couple to somehow make the best of the grim situation in which they are placed, indeed grabs the admiration and fancy of the viewers, no matter the age or time in which they are placed. This masterpiece by Kurosawa also brings out the historical relevance of those times in a circuitous and subtle way. Though nowhere in the movie one come across the allied troops, yet there presence lurks in the backdrop in the form of tell tale signs like a litter basket labeled â€Å"trash† placed unintentionally in one corner of the screen. These symbols of allied occupation do stand out as being imbued with multiple meanings, pointing towards irrevocable historical changes. Placed against this gargantuan scenario marking international level military and political plans, the musings of the young couple in the movie stand out as movingly innocent and somewhat depressing. In a

Firm Research Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Firm Research - Term Paper Example In order to spread its business across the United States, the company follows a franchising business expansion strategy. Five Guys increased its number of locations 6 in 2002 to more than 670 in 2010 (Restaurant News.com, 2011). The company has received several awards for its quality foods and service efficiency. Although Five Guys was rated as one of the fast developing and most profitable food chains in US in recent years, it still does little amount of business the federal government. Since Five Guys is a small business, the company has to take several actions to be able to participate in federal government contracting actions. Firstly, Five Guys has to register with the Central Contractor Registration (CCR) in order to be a federal contractor. The CCR is an online data-base of companies maintained by the federal government so as to find firms wanted to do business with the government. Governmental agencies will search this database to choose prospective partners. Once this registration process is completed, the company should enter its business profile information on the Dynamic Small Business Search page. As per SBA guidelines, by creating a business profile in CCR and Dynamic Small Business Search and keeping the profile information up to date, Five Guys can ensure that it has access to various federal contracting opportunities. Five Guys’ business profile containing detailed business information would assist contracting officers, prime contractors, and state and local government buyers to learn well about the organization. If the organization has competitive strengths and capabilities over other, it will be chosen immediately (U. S. Small Business Administration, n.d). It is a general misconception that small business organizations have to compete head to head with large corporations to win contracts. In reality, the federal government has created wide categories of

Business Management Affairs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Business Management Affairs - Essay Example Data gathering, data assessment, and the forming plan, including strategies, tactics, and desired results, are essential to professional contract negotiations. One will need to create a highly collaborative atmosphere to increase the possibility of achieving a perceived win/win outcome. When engaging in a contract, it is important not to narrow down to one issue, instead understanding that the other side has different interests and needs. In other words, it is important to understand the other party’s real needs. Leading authorities on contract law have defined a contractual agreement as a legally enforceable and voluntary promise exchanged by two or more parties (Simon and Davina) to provide the terms of the promise in exchange for something of value known as consideration. The parties to a contract must make a promise to one another; these parties are obliged to complete the obligations of a promise. If there is a party that feels injured by not receiving that to which he or she is entitled, then the promise will have to be addressed in the court against the party who broke the promise. For example, a person who borrows money from a bank promises to repay the money. If that person fails to repay the money, the bank can go to court and attempt to collect the money that is owed. Contract law further assures the parties to a contract private agreement that the promises one had engaged in will be enforceable. In real sense, many promises are kept because the parties involved feel a moral obligation to do so or because keeping a promise is their mutual interest. The person making the promise (Davina) and the person to who the promise is made (Simon) may decide to honor their agreement for other reasons. Generally, the rules of the contract law are often followed in business agreements to avoid potential problems. Contract law also provides an essential condition for their existence of a market economy. Without a legal

Thursday, October 17, 2019

SHRM individual assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

SHRM individual assignment - Essay Example He was domineering over his wife. Unlike her elder brothers, Primrose has been unsuccessful in maintaining a serious relationship despite her career accomplishments, financial security and pleasant demeanor. She is a mechanical engineer by profession and is employed as a design manager at an automobile corporation. From an early age she loved cars taking it up as a full-time career as an adult. Her passion extends the formal working environment whereby, she restores cars in her fully equipped garage, subscribes to 11 car magazines and watches a car race every weekend. She cannot clearly pinpoint when she lost interest in the listed hobbies. However, she vaguely remembers that it was a couple of days after she heard that her father had passed away. She admits that the incident affected her; however, she is unable to comprehend why it did, as she was not particularly fond of her father. Prior to this, she has sought psychiatric intervention after a couple of friends and colleagues poin ted out that she had become withdrawn, lost interest in participating in activities she liked, and was calling in sick frequently. The psychiatrist prescribed some medication after diagnosing her with Major Depressive Disorder, which was co-morbid with Panic Disorder. Aware of my professional background, Primrose’s neighbor thought that it would be beneficial to Primrose to seek professional help because of the bizzaire behavior she exhibited. According to the neighbor, Primrose began exhibiting queer behaviors about six months ago, after her father’s death. She was fearful of loud sounds and behaved in an agitated manner whenever somebody rung her door-bell. The emergency response personnel had shown up to her house and to the cafà © she frequented right next to her place of residence severally after she called and reported she was having recurrent panic attacks. Primrose was also

Global Business Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Global Business Strategy - Essay Example The paper will highlight some of the key elements in the company's global approach such as international markets choices and entry, market segmentation, as well how the company has carved its way up to the challenging markets in the global construction materials industry. Global Business strategy is a critical component of the holistic approach of organizations attempting to enter global markets successfully. Business organizations have to create approaches, which will cater to all organizational factors such as marketing, human resources management, operations management, risk management and other critical aspects of an organization if they have to put together possible global strategies, which will be sufficient in overcoming challenges of entering global markets. Although there is ongoing debate on multinational corporations strategy over the approaches like standardization versus adaptation there is confluence of ideas and the recognition that multinationals have to put together possible business strategies that will be enough for the unstable and different surroundings in which global businesses operate. There are various factors that apply significant pressure on global businesses to formulate working short term and long term strategies plans t o the accomplishment of their objectives and goals. Upon the underlying fact that human needs are basically the same across countries and communities, sticking differences obtain in aspects cultural, economic, geographic, political etc. This means that global business management organs must be at the top of the game in ensuring that policy and strategy are appropriately put together to reach desired results Corporate strategy focuses on wide and far reaching goals and purposes of an organization. The strategy focuses on the accomplishments of set goals in line with expectations of the stakeholders. Other global business organizations influence on Business Unit strategy, which is a concept that boils down to the aspects of products and services or products being rendered. The other critical strategy component is the aspect of operational strategy, which can also be used in global business strategy to reach desired results in as far meeting organization goals in concerned. The success of Lafarge in the global landscape must have tapped in the advantages of some of these strategic concepts. Through the exploration of the growth and strategic thrust of Lafarge some of theses concepts can be identified. The case of Lafarge note that, the global cement industry is gradually transforming into an oligopoly through the creation of mergers and acquisitions, which ends in capacity concentration, and the control of the global landscape by a few transnational players. However, the global structure of the industry is still unstable with no single player with two digit market share. The major players lack the capacity to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

SHRM individual assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

SHRM individual assignment - Essay Example He was domineering over his wife. Unlike her elder brothers, Primrose has been unsuccessful in maintaining a serious relationship despite her career accomplishments, financial security and pleasant demeanor. She is a mechanical engineer by profession and is employed as a design manager at an automobile corporation. From an early age she loved cars taking it up as a full-time career as an adult. Her passion extends the formal working environment whereby, she restores cars in her fully equipped garage, subscribes to 11 car magazines and watches a car race every weekend. She cannot clearly pinpoint when she lost interest in the listed hobbies. However, she vaguely remembers that it was a couple of days after she heard that her father had passed away. She admits that the incident affected her; however, she is unable to comprehend why it did, as she was not particularly fond of her father. Prior to this, she has sought psychiatric intervention after a couple of friends and colleagues poin ted out that she had become withdrawn, lost interest in participating in activities she liked, and was calling in sick frequently. The psychiatrist prescribed some medication after diagnosing her with Major Depressive Disorder, which was co-morbid with Panic Disorder. Aware of my professional background, Primrose’s neighbor thought that it would be beneficial to Primrose to seek professional help because of the bizzaire behavior she exhibited. According to the neighbor, Primrose began exhibiting queer behaviors about six months ago, after her father’s death. She was fearful of loud sounds and behaved in an agitated manner whenever somebody rung her door-bell. The emergency response personnel had shown up to her house and to the cafà © she frequented right next to her place of residence severally after she called and reported she was having recurrent panic attacks. Primrose was also

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What does it take to be successful in life Essay

What does it take to be successful in life - Essay Example Once they have identified their mistakes and outlined the future course of action that they would take in similar circumstances, they tend to overcome their weaknesses the next time they are in them. Right behavior and rational approach is like a skill that is mastered through practice, experience and reflection upon it. â€Å"An expert is a person who has made all the mistakes that can be made in a very narrow field† (Bohr cited in â€Å"Mistakes Quotes†). Man has been given the ability to decide much of his fortune himself. Those who think and reflect upon their experiences for learning make their life different from the larger group that does not. One is required to be humble in one’s attitude towards others. One should deal others with the same respect one wants others to deal one with. That does not necessarily mean that one should kill one’s ego and accept any thing that the society has to offer. One should never kill one’s ego. Those who completely loose their ego are at the expense of the society and hence, are vulnerable to unjust criticism, humility and insult. The society considers such people as worthless and makes every attempt to ruin their pleasure and hurt their sentiments. An egoless person is treated very badly and shrewdly by the society at large. Lack of ego destroys an individual’s boundaries. â€Å"Having fuzzy boundaries means you are vulnerable to those who wish to use you, enslave you or hurt you† (Self, Ego and Boundaries†). Therefore, killing one’s ego is never the wise option. However, it should be made right use of. One should be wise enough to know whe re to use ego and to what extent. One should always take a stand for what one considers right and always condemn what one deems wrong. This can only be achieved with the appropriate use of ego. Right use of ego guarantees an individual success and respect in his/her life. People tend to show reverence towards such an individual as they know that he/she is courageous,

Monday, October 14, 2019

How the misrepresentation of war and conflict can lead to a false view of events

How the misrepresentation of war and conflict can lead to a false view of events Introduction In June 2009, it was announced that there would be an Inquiry looking into the Iraq War, and the United Kingdoms involvement within it (â€Å"About the Inquiry†, 2009). The Chilcot Inquiry aimed to cover the period between the summer of 2001 and the end July 2009, looking at not only the run-up to the conflict, but also the period during, and the outcomes after measures had been taken. Its aims were set to find out the legality and legitimacy of the conflict (Hirsch, 2009), and how it was presented to the public, prior to engagement. There has been much debate over whether what the public are presented with is as truthful as it states to be. Whether it be giving a cleaner depiction, with exaggerated sophistication, or â€Å"inflated claims† (Meacher, 2010, para. 2), such as the ‘weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, it can be debated that a fair representation is somewhat hard to find. The purpose of this dissertation is to look at how conflict can become misrepresented via the media. It aims to look at the various ways that the media communicate the conflict to the public, and how it poses itself as a watchdog, supposedly working as the publics eyes and ears, as well as giving them an outlet via which their ‘voice can be heard. Whilst one initially thinks of war as a brutal and life affecting situation, more recent war seems to leave most western citizens relatively untouched, and therefore, perhaps less informed. What little they may know tends to be gathered via television or print media, and tends to somewhat be taken quite literally as the ‘way it is. Chapter one brings together these ideas, and explores how the news present conflicts to its audiences. The dissertation then goes on to address the problematic representations that have occurred, and looks at how news can be manufactured for audiences, depicting situations in differing ways to how they are really occurring. It also looks at the idea of propaganda, and the negative and positive ways in which it can be used. This second chapter also addresses the Abu Ghraib situation, and how such a horrific situation can by-pass the media, and perhaps be covered-up. The media however, proved to play a positive role, informing the public of the situation, bringing them into the loop. Other elements which must be addressed is alternative representations. From documentary to video games, people now often use media which originates from conflict as a form of entertainment. Whether it be to inform themselves further, in the cause of documentaries, or to entertain and ‘participate, the media enables audiences to approach the idea of conflict from other angles. This is therefore why it is vital that such genres be addressed when looking at the representation of war and conflict. Chapter One: The Media; Our Eyes and Ears and Voice? When considering how most people get their news and current affairs information, most tend to trust and favour certain institutions. They trust these sources to deliver them accurate and truthful reports. Few people would question their favourite institutions ability to do so, or would question the validity of the ‘stories, consuming them as factual information, and would rarely think beyond it. As discussed by McChesney and Nichols, ideally, the media is supposed to â€Å"serve as a stern watchdog over those in power and those who want to be in power† (McChesney Nichols, 2002, p.24). This supports the idea that the media can be used to aid a countrys citizenship, helping those who do not have power to have a voice. Without the media, the public would find it hard to be heard, so they need to have the media on their side, likewise, the government must have the support of the media to influence the public (Katz, 2009, p.200). But whether the media really honours its role as ‘watchdog is questionable. When considering the media, particularly in relation to reporting conflict, it seems somewhat unlikely that a completely fair and accurate representation, to all audiences, could occur. The BBC, according to Aitken (2007, p.8), is thought of as one of the most trustworthy places that one can gather news and information. This could be due to a sense of ownership in which the UK public feel (via the license fee), or due to it being the most historically established. Either way, nationally, and internationally, it has become a trusted organisation. Zelizer and Allan even argue that, particularly post September 11, the BBC has become an organisation that the American public trust to deliver what they see as more extensive information. In comparison to US media representations, the BBC â€Å"provided a much more in depth approach, [] along with [a] ‘blunter attitude† (Zelizer Allan, 2002, p.12) . According to Aitken, (2007, p.2), the BBC does have a duty under its Royal Charter, in order to maintain the license fee, that it must not be biased or favour views. This may indicate why it is seen as a more trustworthy source of information. However, as questioned by Aitken, it may be seen as the BBC holds people and organisations to account, but â€Å"who holds the BBC to account?† (Aitken, 2007, p.2). Particularly, when as Aitken suggests (2007, p.20), the political opinion within the organisation would be formed by those working within it. As Navasky discusses, â€Å"journalism, the flow of news, information, and ideas, is the circulation system of our democracy, the way we find out whats what. It is based largely on journalism that we make up our national mind† (Navasky, 2002, p.xiii). The medias influence over the public is tremendous, especially as it may be the main influence over many of ones beliefs. It therefore shows that there is a sense that the media should be aware of its power, and should therefore be regulated in such a way that it does allow diversity of representations to occur. As Doyle asserts, it is vital that there is a number of â€Å"different and independent voices, and of differing political opinions and representations† (Doyle, 2002, p.11). However, as Aitken continues, journalists report using their own views, and may do so completely unintentionally. However, when many journalists within an organisation are of similar beliefs, it could be hard for them to realise they may be bia sed. This is an â€Å"institutional deformation, invisible to the people working there, unless you were one of a small minority who happen to take a different political view† (Aitken, 2007, p.20). When considering journalism of attachment, it is easy to see where one may be unable to stand neutrally. As it is a â€Å"journalism that cares as well as knows† (Bell, 1998, p.15), the journalist is increasingly likely to be more emotionally entwined with the story, and therefore may find it harder to stand in a non-biased position. As Ellis addresses (1998, p.167), moral responsibility often takes over when journalism becomes closer to the victims. Emotion is a powerful tool used by the media, it can help to draw in an audience, and get them following along. According to Boltanski (1999, p.5), there must be sufficient contact between the ‘victim and those who are ‘fortunate for one to be able to connect with the victim or ‘unfortunate.   Despite this though, as Boltanski (1999, p.27) states, the two groups actually mean nothing to one another. Therefore, it is believed that the emotional effect of such reporting is relatively short lived for the audience consuming. Bystander journalism however, seems to be the more idealistic approach that media organisations may favour, if wishing to be non-biased. This form of journalism is more concerned with factual elements of war. This is a less biased approach, as it tends to report an overall representation via factual elements. It allows audiences to walk away without feeling an attachment or moral obligation. Whilst audiences may tend to favour this form of reporting as more accurate, it can cause problems. According to Sanders, there is â€Å"a time to be passionate and a time to be dispassionate† (Sanders, 2005, p.43). As he continues, this approach to journalism allows a â€Å"more truthful depiction of the horrors of war† (Sanders, 2005, p.43). It may give a more accurate reading into the devastation (on paper), but how one interprets that information though is where the problems occur. If one is not given the chance to physically see the devastation, it is hard to really understand. Therefore, by dispassionately reporting, one may lack the emotional tie, and get a cleaner depiction of what is ‘intended to be communicated. Whilst one may feel they understand the situation, they are only being told facts, and whether they can really translate these into reality, is problematic. If one does not get the full picture, including the emotional and social impact that such a war may have over others, it is an unfair representation. Economical and statistical figures only tell so much, and do not communicate a reality. As Nichols and McChesney discuss, we â€Å"dont see the reality of war† (Nichols McChesney, 2005, p.v). Although this is in reference to the US press and public, it could be applied to any countries depiction, according to the countries own national belief, even if not to the same extent. â€Å"War is the most serious use of state power: organised, sanctioned violence† (Nichols McChesney, 2005, p.37). It is therefore a serious issue if one is not being given the chance to see the reality of a conflict, and the arguments behind it. It is all very to have a vague understanding behind a conflict, via information received from the media, but many audiences may take this information too literally. They may not look beyond the information offered, and may take the medias chosen narrative as a truthful and fair depiction, without questioning why the media has taken that particular angle. As discussed by Aitken, it is about â€Å"constructing ‘narratives which give the audience a coherent framework within which to judge current developments† (Aitken, 2007, p.17). But as Aitken continues, most people consume and trust one narrative, despite there being many other competing versions of the same situation, which may be a more accurate representation. Narratives give audiences a platform to work on, and a basis to which they can base their beliefs. If however, there are many competing versions a situation, as Aitken suggests (2007, p.17), this demonstrates the various views that a broadcaster may possess. It would be hard for a broadcaster to deny their biases, particularly when there are other similar reports of other viewpoints. No one can truly asses a situation fairly without viewing every angle of the situation, not only from the home governments wished depiction, but also from the ‘enemies depiction. This draws onto another point. Due to the technology of today, audiences are now able to access news instantly as situations are occurring. They are led to believe this gives them a bigger picture. It is also a good position for the public to be in, as they are therefore able to access the same information as others, and are less likely to be misled. This however can be problematic for controlling bodies, particularly in relation to conflict. â€Å"Leaders must be prepared to handle the rapid pace of global communication and to avoid serious policy mistakes deriving from global televisions demands for a fast and effective response† (Gilboa, 2005, p.24). They have little time for preparation, and therefore have to be somewhat careful in what they say, and aim to be somewhat vague, to give them the ability to be able to change their angle later if necessary. Videophones have also proven problematic for those reporting via the media. Whilst they can â€Å"empower journalists [], documenting the effects of battle while capturing a dramatic but information-rich account of war† (Livingstone, Bennett Robinson, 2005, p.34), they can display more than a chosen government may have wished audiences to witness. However, it must be recognised that even with such resources, reporters are often not actually at the ‘frontline, and are still some distance from the actual action, and therefore may only have the details which they may have been given by officials. It may also vary with the type of people which they are surrounded by, i.e. civilians or the military. Another issue to discuss when considering reporting a conflict is where the information reported has been obtained from. Reporters are often â€Å"given access to a steady and predictable supply of information that is typically provided by official government sources† (Livingstone, Bennett, Robinson, 2005, p.34). This therefore, shows that the information may not be directly from the source, even if we are led to believe so. It therefore may not be the full bulk of the situation, particularly when the government is the middle man, as it may wish to represent its own view. If the government is passing the information on, they are able to edit the information into a situation that compliments their desired standpoint. Why would one wish to humiliate or inflate problems for itself when it is unnecessary to do so? This therefore raises the question of whether we should be in fact more concerned by what we are not being shown, rather than what we are. This process of eliminating a nd censoring news via gatekeeping is a way of ensuring only ‘newsworthy subjects reach the public, whilst other things they deem unnecessary, do not. The reporting of the 1990-1991 Gulf War can demonstrate where a lack of information was relayed to the public. During the conflict, the public were given a cleaner depiction, and were under the impression that bombs dropped were precise and accurate. However, â€Å"after the war it was revealed that in fact only 7 per cent of bombs were ‘precision or laser-guided weapons† (Philo McLauglin, 1995, p.149). Throughout the conflict, there was an obsession around the sophisticated weapons that were being used, which could now be seen as somewhat misleading. As cited by Philo and McLauglin (from The Daily Mirror), â€Å"The world watch in awe yesterday as Stormin Norman played his ‘home video revealing how allied plans are using Star Wars technology to destroy vital Iraqi targets. Just like Luke Skywalker manoeuvring his fighter into the heart of Darth Vaders space complex, the US pilots zeroed into the very centre of Saddam Husseins Baghdad† (Philo McLauglin, 1 995, p. 149). Such an article would give a very unfair representation of the real effect, but this may not be clear to audiences until after the situation has taken place. Surely therefore, this misleading of the public could be seen as a form of propaganda? As Rosenfeld suggests (2007, p.70), it may be necessary to represent events in certain, perhaps biased ways, as this should encourage support and patriotism within the public. Today one may assume that due to our knowledge and understanding of propaganda, it is less likely to happen to us. But as a victim of propaganda, would you really realise you were being subjected to it? According to Edward Bernays, propaganda is seen as a vital tool for societies. â€Å"Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are together as a smooth functioning society† (Bernays, 2005, p.37). Essentially, propaganda is â€Å"the establishing of reciprocal understanding between an individual and a group† (Bernays, 2005, p.161). So if as Bernays suggest, propaganda is needed to obtain a joint understanding within a group, this may indicate why it may be used by governments to persuade t he public to join their beliefs, in order to get a desired outcome. This can show why, it is essential that certain representations be presented to the public, however inaccurate or biased they may be, to create an alliance of beliefs. This would also support the idea behind over-emphasising the sophistication of war and cleanliness, in order to maintain support. As you can see from this chapter, the media are there as our eyes and ears, feeding us information, but also serves, as a watchdog over government and other elite bodies. Also demonstrated is how the media have a great responsibility when reporting, due to their persuasiveness, and the fact that the public can be easily manipulated, and often follow and gather their national belief via what the media feeds them. It shows how ones understanding of a situation may differ depending on how it is reported. If reported using emotions, it may create a different perception to if it was reported factually, even if the factual representation, on paper, gives more information. This gives a good basis upon which to discuss why such reporting takes place, and how it may benefit those in power. It also raises the questions around what is not being shown to audiences, and what happens when the media or government are shown to have been untruthful. Chapter Two: Censorship, Deceit and Propaganda As discussed in Chapter One, it can be somewhat confusing to consider the various ways that the media can present particular views. As suggested previously, it is thought that they do so consciously, but other views suggest that it is often unintentional. Whilst aiming to appear open, they often present a marginal view of the information they themselves are aware of. It therefore must be questioned why such actions are implemented, rather than presenting as much as possible, and why particular views are manufactured for audiences. Ellis (1998, p.170) considers the lack of information reported about a conflict to be incredibly important. The national security of a country could be jeopardised if one were to report everything occurring, on both the front line, and the tactical decisions behind it. As Ellis continues, it is thought that the media coverage of the Vietnam War was partially to blame for the conflicts failure. It is thought that â€Å"television coverage critically sapped the support of the American public† (Ellis, 1998, p.170). As this was the first war that was able to be broadcast ‘live, the problems were unforeseen, and therefore led to a problematic position for the government. Whilst the government was saying one thing, images shown were undermining their words, subsequently making the government appear somewhat untrustworthy. This, therefore, would show that it is necessary that the media and its coverage of a conflict should be censored and paid close attention to, so that support is maintained by the public. But, if censorship is in such a way that it helps the audiences to form a chosen opinion, effectively, this could be seen as propaganda. As Bernays states, propaganda is â€Å"the conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses† (Bernays, 2005, p.37). But, also adds that it is important for democratic society, and without which, it would be hard for one to live harmoniously, especially if everyone was of differing opinions. Therefore, presenting a situation in a particular way should help society to form a joint understanding. For example, when thinking in relation to Iraq, the main reason for intervention was due to supposed ‘weapons of mass destruction. If the public understand the threat, they are more likely to consent. As demonstrated durin g the ‘Iraq Enquiry, when it was discovered that there were no weapons, the public support was threatened. It therefore is essential that the politicians defend what they have formerly said, just as Alistair Campbell has demonstrated, defending their statements as not misrepresentative (â€Å"Alastair Campbell defends†, 2010). As Bernays reiterates â€Å"We are governed, our minds moulded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of† (Bernays, 2005, p. 37). Therefore, whether it is government who we have chosen, the military, or other leaders that we have not, this would support the idea that our feelings about conflict are generally dictated to us. So, as it would appear, sometimes the restriction of coverage may take place when it is not entirely necessary. As Ellis addresses, during both the Falklands War in1982 and the Gulf War of 1991 â€Å"citizens were prevented from learning information which in a democratic society, they had a right to know† (Ellis, 1998, p.170). This seems particularly unfair, as citizens were unable to witness the real war that was being fought in their name, paid for by themselves. Since technology developed though, it would appear that censorship has become more necessary. As discussed in the previous chapter, videophones and correspondents worldwide enable audiences to access the action, at a much closer distance than previously (Livingstone, Bennett Robinson, 2005, p.34). This gives an impression to audiences that there is nowhere to hide, and they may believe what they are seeing is a fully representational true account, rather than the edited snippet that it really is. This kind of opinion, of knowing more, does not take into account that there are plenty of other journalists who are not as close to the action, or those who are closer to it, who may wish to protect the interests of those surrounding them. As previously stated, there is always fear that public support may be jeopardised, which is why on occasions there may be a haze over what is reality, as well as what is fabricated truth within the media. When one is able to ‘witness war from multiple angles, from multiple genres, and even witness it live, it creates public curiosity. Especially since problematic representations of previous conflicts have been reported, the public fight harder to know the truth, so they no longer have the wool pulled over their eyes. They want to ensure the war fought in their name is a war which they support. Particularly, when considering the fact that many nations are bound together as ‘one for the purpose of the media, forgetting the fact that there are many cultures, viewpoints and faiths with differing opinions. The public need the media to take on their role of ‘watchdog, and need it to marshal what is taking place beyond their vision on their behalf. The media, therefore, it seems has begun to honour this role more greatly. In 2004, the media brought us evidence of what is referred to as Abu Ghraib. It was revealed that some Iraqi detainees had been subjected to torture and other physical abuse. According to Miles, an Al-Jazeera cameraman, who was mistakenly arrested for a crime he did not commit, found out that â€Å"torture was still standard in Americas principle military detention centre in Iraq† (Miles, 2005, p.326). According to Miles, as the time of the accusations against the American military, â€Å"few in the West believed their stories at the time, probably because they were Arabs, perhaps because they worked for Al-Jazeera† (Miles, 2005, p.326). The US government and military repeatedly denied the accusations, â€Å"Donald Rumsfeld has described Al-Jazeera as ‘consistently lying, [and] accused the network of causing ‘great damage and harm in Iraq by continuously broadcasting wrong and inaccurate information, impairing what the coalition forces [were] trying to achi eve† (Miles, 2005, p.327). As Miles describes (2005, p.328), it was US officials that were angry, believing that such allegations would fuel Iraqi hatred against the West further. At the time, the officials may have not known of the occurrences, but it cannot be ruled out that they had no knowledge of it. This demonstrates an example whereby the American media were feeding the public with false information, whether it was intentional or not. If it was intentional though, it would have been in favour of government, who would obviously not want to be painted in a bad light. It was not until the New Yorker magazine published evidential pictures of the abuse that it was uncovered and believed, and finally admitted to be the truth (Miles, 2005, p.328). However, this is not where the only problem lies. Since then, it has been debated whether or not all of the images should be released for the public to view. One the one hand, it is believed that the images should be realised due to the fact that it was the American citizens own troops causing the offences, under the American name, whilst others believe it could potentially cause further harm. According to a report, â€Å"Obama said he believes release of the abuse photos would incite hatred against American troops† (Alberts, 2009, para. 4). This again brings up the subject of national security. Understandably the release of such images during a time of conflict could incite further hatred, but due to freedom of information, what right do officials really have to withhold them? Surely if one is to fully understand war, they must have the full picture, however horrific and problematic it may be. If the images are not fully released, is there a reason behind this other than prot ecting our conscience? What is being hidden? Could it be contributing to part of a ‘cover-up, with fear of something more sinister than what we already know being revealed? If therefore, officials had known about the situation (prior to it being confirmed), yet it had not made its way to mainstream media, this is misinforming the public, giving them a one sided ‘clean account of their position in the conflict. By never witnessing the faults of ones own government, one cannot really claim to know. Even by withholding the images, it does not allow the American and Western democratic public a clear view as to what is really occurring under their name. Particularly as it is ‘our men, who are normally painted as positively heroic, committing such horrific offences. This sort of behaviour by the media and government causes other problems too. Conspiracy theories to try and help explain other supposed reasonings behind war and decisions made by government begin to emerge. It helps give a new blame figure, and is perhaps fuelled by paranoia and suspicion (Knight, 2003, p. 20). As Knight asserts, conspiracy theory may put â€Å"forward the idea that sometimes people at the very centre of power might create (or perhaps just cynically promote) a popular outburst of demonology in order to further their own political schemes. This view is sometimes known as the elitist theory of moral panics, because it suggests that the elite deliberately fuel moral panics in order to legitimate repressive measures that would otherwise be unacceptable† (Knight, 2003, p.20). When the public begin to doubt their own government, feeling they are being fed propaganda, it is obvious they should want an explanation, so may turn to conspiracy theories as an alternative and comfort. For example, the documentary The Conspiracy Files (Rudkin, 2010, January 10) demonstrates how one may begin to become suspicious. It claims that a video of Benazir Bhutto talking after her first attempted murder was edited to exclude a statement she made about Osama Bin Laden. The version it claims the BBC presented cut out this section, for no apparent reason, so it is questionable as to why it was censored. A further example where the Western governments fear of what could be revealed via the media was demonstrated in October 2009 (Gray, 2009, October 25). Lance Corporal Joe Glenton was a soldier once serving in Afghanistan, who now faces a court martial and has been arrested. He claimed that he had â€Å"witnessed sights during his time in Afghanistan that forced him to question the morality of his role† (‘Soldier arrested, 2009, para. 8). Alike him, many other documentaries and interviews with ex-soldiers seem to unveil similar situations, where soldiers have a different picture of the war than the media have led the public to believe. The sanitization that takes place in the media is a view which soldiers alike Corporal Glenton would like to set straight. Glenton began to get the medias attention when he spoke at an anti-war demonstration that called for the British troops to be brought home. He claimed that many of the soldiers and demonstrators believed that it was not longer justifiable to have troops in the Middle East, and was trying to raise public awareness of this. This particular story came at a time when the public in both the UK and America were starting to doubt whether the war was really getting anywhere. Jeremy Corbyn MP is quoted as stating that the â€Å"war in Afghanistan had no clear war aims† (â€Å"Britons believe ‘Afghan war is failing†, 2009, para. 15). He also states that it is now â€Å"the time to change policy and bring the troops home to prevent Nato involving itself in a Vietnam style quagmire† (â€Å"Britons believe ‘Afghan war is failing†, 2009, para. 17). With such stories and statements emerging in the media, it does cause the public to question why the media and government would not present the ‘full picture. Especially when thinking about how the US media is less open about situations than the UK and other countries media (Zelizer Allan, 2002, p.2). Previously, it was easier for a government to deny that they knew about a situation, but technology has now taken this advantage away, making it impossible not to know. However, as Zelizer and Allan argue, the media may be used in such a way that it helps the public. â€Å"Journalism plays a key role in moving whole populations form trauma to recovery† (Zelizer Allan, 2002, p.2). It can therefore help to unite a nation, regardless of differing backgrounds, and help them to work together, particularly through traumatic times like conflict. With this view, it would seem that the US in particular may have needed such treatment. As the targeted nation in the 9/11 attacks, the y may have required more help than other nations to come to terms with the situation, as well as needing ‘encouragement in the right direction, and perhaps protection from the truth.. However, there is no doubt that this is a form of propaganda, as it does not demonstrate a clear communication of all the information one would need to make a fair judgement in order to make a justified opinion. This may demonstrate why the American citizens have trusted foreign institutions such as the BBC for increased information, as previously addressed The media also tend to emphasise violence and negative features of the enemy in order to justify the conflict in hand. Today, â€Å"terrorists have been given a voice† (Liebes Kampf, 2004, p.78). Since technology has greatened, other views, beyond just violence, have been represented. Interviews and arguments have been appearing in the media, with direct responses from the ‘enemy. Despite perhaps this being a positive thing, it can be used by government and the media to paint their own picture. They do not have to show everything, and can edit it as they desire, as previously discussed with the Bhutto footage. Another clear example is in the Joint Forces military publication. It has a dismissive attitude when discussing anything anti-American. It even addresses the problems of ‘foreign propaganda. It gives a sense of heroism, stating that via the American efforts in the war on terror, that they will â€Å"enable populations misinformed by censorship and other impediments to hear the truth† (Dailey Webb, 2006, p.46). It does not take into account the use of their own propa